18 ѧ֧ݧ, ֧ӧ֧

էҧߧ

: Reuters

?ݧէ ֧ߧ ߧ ڧݧߧ ߧѧԧѧ ֧ҧ ѧҧ?

ߧ֧ӧ ݧѧ֧ѧ ҧ֧ݧ֧ӧܧ ֧ާڧ ڧާڧ ѧ֧ݧ֧

֧ާ ݧ ӧ֧ߧڧ ҧ֧ݧ֧ӧܧ ֧ާڧ ܧݧݧ֧ԧ ҧ ҧѧѧ ݧѧ֧ѧ, էڧާ ݧ ֧ߧڧӧѧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ֧ߧԧ ڧݧ ҧݧڧܧѧڧ -اߧѧݧѧ ֧ ӧէ֧ݧ ڧۧܧڧ էߧڧܧ, ѧܧѧ٧ѧ ߧҧ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧ ݧѧ֧ѧ ڧާڧ 2013 ԧէ ѧާ֧ڧܧѧߧ-ڧ٧ѧڧݧܧڧ ֧ߧ ѧ֧ݧ. ֧֧է ݧѧ ӧ ӧ֧ާ ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ, ӧ֧ߧߧ 120-ݧ֧ڧ ѧҧ ܧާѧߧڧ Merck ڧ.


֧ާ ӧ֧ߧ ҧݧ ӧѧ ݧ֧ܧڧ ߧ ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ Merck?

ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ ѧܧѧ٧ӧѧ ӧ֧ ߧѧߧ ѧҧ. ا֧ߧڧ ߧѧߧ ܧѧ֧ ڧݧ֧է ӧ٧ާاߧ ܧާ֧ߧԧ ާէ֧ݧڧӧѧߧڧ ҧڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧ ާݧ֧ܧ. ݧ֧ܧڧ էҧߧ֧ ѧߧӧڧݧ ߧ ѧ֧ԧڧ ֧֧ߧڧ ٧ѧէѧ, ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧڧ ѧ֧ ݧاߧ ҧڧڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ڧ֧.

ߧ ֧ӧ ѧ ڧ. ݧاڧݧڧ ݧ ӧѧ ܧߧѧܧ ڧۧܧڧާ ֧ߧާ? ݧ֧էڧ ٧ ѧҧѧާ ڧۧܧڧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ ӧѧ֧ ڧݧ ާ֧اߧ ߧѧߧ ҧݧѧ?

ѧӧӧѧ էӧ ާ֧ڧڧ ڧ: էߧ ҧݧ , էԧ ܧӧ. ߧ֧ߧ, ܧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ާ֧ ҧݧѧ, ܧ ӧݧߧ ܧݧݧ֧ԧ ڧ. ٧ߧѧܧ ҧݧڧܧѧڧާ էߧڧܧ ԧ ֧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ֧ާڧߧ (, ڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ѧܧݧ֧). ܧ ާߧ ߧ էѧݧ ߧѧݧѧէڧ ֧ߧ էߧڧ֧ӧ ֧ڧѧݧڧѧާ, ٧ѧߧڧާѧڧާڧ ߧѧܧ ٧է֧, ާ֧ ԧ ѧҧѧݧ ѧڧѧߧ էܧ ڧ ڧ.

ݧ֧էߧڧ ԧէ ڧ ԧէѧӧ ߧѧߧ ߧէ ԧݧѧӧߧ ڧߧڧܧ ڧߧѧߧڧӧѧߧڧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧ ֧֧ާѧڧӧѧ ܧڧ֧ڧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ ѧҧ ֧ߧ. ֧ԧէߧ ߧӧߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ֧ݧ ڧݧ ҧݧڧܧѧڧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ ӧܧ֧ۧڧߧԧӧ اߧѧݧѧ. ҧ֧ܧڧӧߧѧ ֧ߧܧ ѧҧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ, ԧ ڧݧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ?

ާѧ, ӧ֧ާ ߧ֧ܧ֧ܧߧ է, ӧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧާ ֧էҧ֧اէ֧ߧڧާ. ѧ էѧӧߧ ڧѧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧӧ ҧ֧ѧݧ ӧݧѧڧӧѧ $50 . ֧ߧާ, ѧ ҧէ֧ ҧݧڧܧӧѧߧ Science. ѧܧڧܧ ֧ܧѧڧݧ. ڧ֧ާ ߧѧߧ ҧݧڧܧѧڧ ߧӧѧߧ ߧ ҧ֧ܧڧӧߧ էէ ֧էѧܧ ֧֧ߧ٧֧ߧ. ݧ ӧ ѧҧѧ֧ ڧߧߧӧѧڧߧߧ ҧݧѧ, ӧ֧էڧ اߧѧݧ ާԧ ѧӧڧ ާߧ֧ߧڧ ӧѧ ֧٧ݧѧ. ѧڧާ֧, ާ ѧߧߧڧ ѧҧ ҧݧ ܧݧߧ֧ߧ Nature Science. ѧާ ݧ֧ԧܧڧ ֧ߧܧ ҧݧڧܧѧڧ, ܧާ ڧҧ֧ԧѧ ֧էѧܧ, ӧ٧ѧ ѧӧ ڧݧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ҧݧڧܧѧڧ, ܧ ֧ߧ ا ڧާ֧֧ -اߧѧݧѧ. ڧ֧ާ ֧֧ߧ٧ڧӧѧߧڧ اߧѧݧѧ ا ݧҧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ڧ֧ާ, ܧ ݧڧߧ ڧߧ֧֧ ѧӧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ԧݧ. էߧ ֧ߧڧ էѧߧߧ ާާ֧ߧ, ܧѧܧ ާا֧ ҧ ֧ܧ ѧ ާݧէԧ ѧӧ.ާ ڧ ѧܧԧ է ܧݧڧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ާ֧ڧ ֧ܧڧӧߧ, ߧ֧ҧէڧ ҧݧ֧ ܧާݧ֧ܧߧ է. ѧ ҧݧڧܧѧڧ ֧ߧԧ ӧ اߧѧݧѧ ҧݧ ԧӧ ֧ԧ ڧӧ֧ا֧ߧߧ ֧էѧܧڧߧߧ ݧڧڧܧ ڧ٧էѧߧڧ.

ӧѧ֧ ߧѧߧ ԧ ѧҧѧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧ ڧ ߧէڧ, ڧѧ, ֧, ݧԧѧڧ էԧڧ ѧ. ѧܧӧ ӧѧ ܧڧ֧ڧ ҧ֧֧էӧѧߧڧ ܧѧߧէڧէѧѧާ?

ߧ ܧѧا֧, ߧ֧էѧߧ ڧݧڧ ڧݧѧԧѧ ҧ ܧѧߧէڧէѧ. ߧ ݧ֧էӧѧݧ ҧ ֧ӧ ֧֧է ݧѧԧѧ ߧ ݧڧߧ ҧ֧֧էӧѧߧڧ. ѧѧ ݧѧ֧ ѧڧ֧ܧ, ѧ ߧ ӧѧҧѧ ڧ֧ާѧڧ֧ܧԧ էէ. ߧާѧڧ ڧܧѧ֧ݧ ӧ֧ԧէ ҧէ֧ ߧ֧էѧߧ, ѧ ҧѧߧߧ ܧѧߧէڧէѧ ӧ֧ԧէ ߧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ اڧէѧߧڧ. ѧڧާ֧, ӧ֧ ֧֧ߧէ֧ߧ ڧ ڧѧ ֧ ߧѧߧ ֧֧ߧ, ާا֧ ӧӧ֧ ٧ѧҧݧاէ֧ߧڧ. ֧ڧѧݧڧѧ ڧ ߧէڧ ӧѧاߧ ٧ߧѧ, ܧѧܧ ߧڧӧ֧ڧ֧ ߧ ݧѧݧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ. ԧ ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ܧѧ٧ѧ, ާߧ ߧاߧ էߧڧܧ ڧݧߧ ާڧӧѧڧ֧, ܧ ߧ ҧ ާߧԧ ѧҧѧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧ ֧ѧ ҧڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ҧݧ֧ާ. ֧ݧѧ֧ݧߧ, ҧ ڧܧѧ֧ݧ ҧݧ ԧѧާާڧӧѧߧڧ ҧݧ ٧ߧѧܧާ ѧ֧ߧާ ѧڧڧ֧ܧڧާ ާ֧էѧާ.

ާ֧ѧݧ ݧ ӧ ܧѧܧڧ-ߧڧҧէ ֧ԧڧߧѧݧߧ ֧ էէ ڧӧܧѧ ӧѧڧ էߧڧܧ ڧݧ ֧ߧ ֧ߧ ݧڧ֧ ӧܧڧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ҧ֧ߧߧ֧?

٧ѧӧڧڧ ܧݧ ѧߧ ڧاէ֧ߧڧ. էݧҧڧ ߧ ӧݧ֧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ֧. ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ҧ֧ߧߧ. ާߧ էߧ էҧڧ է֧ߧ ڧ ڧѧ ԧ, ֧ԧ . ڧߧ ݧڧѧ ҧݧڧ ާӧ. ҧ֧ԧ: ֧ԧէߧ ާݧէ ֧ߧ ߧ ڧݧߧ ߧѧԧѧ ֧ҧ ѧҧ. ާ֧ ԧ ާѧݧ ܧ ڧ֧٧اѧ֧ ߧ ѧҧ է֧ ѧѧ , ܧ֧ ڧߧاէ֧ߧڧ ߧѧ֧ԧ ֧ܧ֧ѧ-ѧէާڧߧڧѧ. ާ ӧ֧ާ ӧ ڧէڧݧ ߧ ѧҧ ѧߧ, էڧݧ ٧էߧ.

اѧ ֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ֧ ڧۧܧ ߧѧܧ. ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ ѧ֧ԧ ߧѧߧԧ ܧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧, ާݧէ ֧ڧѧݧڧ ҧݧ֧ ҧ֧֧ߧ

ݧ ܧ- էԧ ҧէ֧ է֧ݧѧ ٧ ߧڧ ѧҧ, , ާا֧ ҧ, ߧ էڧԧߧ ԧ֧ ߧѧܧ. ֧ާ֧ߧ, ܧߧ֧ߧ, ڧߧ, ߧڧާѧ. ާݧէ֧ا ߧ ڧӧܧݧ ѧҧѧ ާߧԧ. ֧ܧ ӧ֧اէѧ ֧֧, է֧ߧ ӧҧ ߧ էݧاߧ էѧӧѧ ܧ٧ѧާ֧ߧ.

ާ֧ ӧѧڧާ ܧݧݧ֧ԧѧާ, ֧ѧާ ֧ӧڧ ѧݧ, ӧ ݧ ڧܧ ܧާ֧ߧԧ ާէ֧ݧڧӧѧߧڧ ҧڧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ާݧ֧ܧݧߧ ڧ֧. ߧѧڧߧѧݧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ާէ֧ݧڧӧѧߧڧ֧ ߧ ֧ѧ, ڧ٧ӧէڧ֧ݧߧ ܧ ߧ ֧ӧѧݧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ݧ֧ߧ. ӧ֧ڧݧ ԧէ, ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ӧڧݧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧ߧڧܧ ٧ӧݧڧ ٧ ֧ܧߧէ ֧ѧ ٧ѧէѧ, ߧ ܧ 1970- ԧէ, ߧѧӧ֧ߧ, էڧݧ ߧ֧է֧ݧ ާ֧?

ߧѧڧߧѧݧ ѧҧѧ ֧ߧ ާ֧էݧ֧ߧߧ ߧߧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧ܧѧ ܧާ֧, ܧէ ާ֧ߧ֧ ާߧ, ֧ ӧѧ ާѧ. ѧ ܧާ֧ ѧ٧ѧҧѧݧ էߧڧܧ ߧڧ ֧ۧާѧߧ (֧ӧ, ٧ѧڧݧ) ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ݧ֧ ڧާ֧ߧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧէѧߧԧ ԧݧڧߧߧԧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧէҧߧԧ ҧ, ٧էѧߧߧԧ ѧاܧڧ ѧӧӧڧߧ, ҧ ާԧѧ ڧէ֧ ӧ ӧ֧ާ ѧҧҧѧ. ܧާ֧ ҧ ާ֧էݧ֧ߧߧ, ߧ ڧѧݧ էߧڧ ڧ ѧާ ߧ ާڧ.

ԧ ܧѧ٧ѧ, ܧ ӧڧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ҧݧ էݧ ߧѧ ҧݧ֧ާ, ݧڧڧ ѧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧާ. ڧէڧݧ ڧէ ߧ ѧ٧ߧ ڧ էݧ ԧ, ҧ ѧߧڧ ܧէ.

ӧڧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ԧէ ѧѧݧ ߧѧۧ է, ܧ ٧ӧݧ ҧ ֧ѧ ٧ѧէѧ ѧӧߧڧ֧ݧߧ ҧ ߧ ֧ ܧާ֧ѧ, ܧ ڧާ֧ է. ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ էڧ ڧ ݧ֧ܧ ާߧ, ֧ԧ ԧ ֧ҧӧѧݧ ҧݧ֧ 50 ߧ֧է֧ݧ, ҧ ѧڧѧ ڧ ҧڧڧާڧ֧ܧ ڧ֧ާ. ߧڧܧԧէ ߧ ѧڧ ҧݧ֧ ֧ էߧ֧ ߧ ӧ ӧڧݧ֧ߧڧ. ݧ ާߧ ڧ٧ӧէڧ֧ݧߧ ܧާ֧ ߧ ӧѧѧݧ, ڧܧѧ ڧ ٧ѧէѧ. էߧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧݧ, ܧԧէ ާ ѧݧڧ ҧ֧էڧ ܧݧݧ֧ ߧѧէ֧اߧ ݧ֧ߧߧ ֧٧ݧѧ.

ѧ٧ѧҧѧߧߧѧ ߧѧާ ԧڧҧڧէߧѧ ֧ާ QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) ӧܧݧѧ֧ ѧ֧ߧ ֧ާ ܧӧѧߧӧ ާݧ֧ܧݧߧ ާ֧ѧߧڧܧ, ٧ӧݧڧ ڧ٧ѧ ڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ֧ ѧӧѧ ҧ֧ݧܧѧ. 1970- ԧէ ާ ߧ ڧҧ֧ԧѧݧ ӧܧާ ӧߧ ѧ֧ ܧӧѧߧӧ-ާ֧ѧߧڧ֧ܧ ѧӧݧ֧. ާԧݧ ҧ ѧڧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ݧ֧ ߧ ܧӧѧߧӧ ֧֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ҧݧԧ ާݧ֧ܧݧߧԧ ѧԧާ֧ߧ ӧ ѧӧߧ ߧ ݧڧ ֧٧ݧѧ, ӧ֧ӧ֧ԧ ܧڧ֧ڧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ ܧӧѧߧӧ ާ֧ѧߧڧܧ. ֧ԧէߧ ا ާէ֧ݧڧӧѧߧڧ, ߧѧڧާ֧, ڧߧߧ ܧѧߧѧݧ ާݧ֧ܧݧѧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ֧ ߧ էݧ ֧ܧߧէ. ֧٧ݧѧ ѧܧԧ է ާڧݧݧڧ֧ܧߧէߧԧ ާէ֧ݧڧӧѧߧڧ ֧ԧݧߧ ҧݧڧܧ ֧֧ Nature Science. ܧ֧ ݧ֧էӧڧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ էڧا֧ߧڧ, ߧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ߧӧ էէ ߧѧܧ.

ߧԧڧ ߧҧ֧ݧڧѧ ѧ٧է֧ݧ ӧ اڧ٧ߧ ߧ է ݧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ާڧ. ѧѧ ݧѧ֧ѧ-֧ߧ ֧, ѧߧ ާ֧ڧڧ, ݧ֧ܧڧ ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ ߧڧާѧ ӧ֧ާ ߧѧߧ ѧҧ. ѧܧӧ ҧ ߧҧ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧ ݧѧ֧ѧ ֧֧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ݧ֧ ݧ ߧѧԧѧاէ֧ߧڧ?

ѧԧѧاէ֧ߧڧ ֧ާڧ֧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ֧֧ߧ ڧ٧ާ֧ߧڧݧ ާ ҧѧ اڧ٧ߧ. ڧӧ֧է ߧ֧ԧѧڧӧߧ ڧާ֧: ֧֧ ֧ڧѧݧڧ ҧ ҧѧѧ ܧ ާߧ ӧѧާ ߧ ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ ڧ-٧ ާ֧ԧ ѧ. ֧ѧݧߧ, ӧ٧ߧڧܧݧ էڧѧߧڧ, ѧ ѧ٧ӧ֧ ֧էҧ֧اէ֧ߧڧ. էݧاѧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧܧ է֧֧ݧߧ, ѧҧѧ ާ֧ ԧ ߧѧާ ݧ֧ܧߧߧ . ѧѧ ѧӧӧѧ ߧѧߧ ܧߧ֧֧ߧڧ ܧѧ ѧ ѧէ ܧߧѧܧ ܧݧݧ֧ԧѧާ.

ӧ ԧէ ߧѧ٧ѧ ӧ ֧ ߧ էԧڧ ӧڧէߧ ֧ߧ էڧѧݧ ҧѧ֧ߧڧ ڧ٧ӧ , Greenpeace ѧӧڧ֧ݧӧѧ ֧ܧѧڧ ҧҧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ڧ֧ܧ ާէڧڧڧӧѧߧߧާ ԧѧߧڧ٧ާѧާ. ڧѧ֧, ڧ٧ӧ ҧݧ ݧѧߧ ާڧӧ ҧ֧ӧ? ڧߧڧާѧ֧ ݧ ާڧӧ ҧ֧ӧ ?ԧݧ ߧѧܧ??

اѧݧ֧ߧڧ, ߧ է ܧߧ ӧ֧ ڧݧ ֧ڧڧ, ܧ ڧߧԧէ էڧӧѧ. ݧ֧էߧ, ܧ էէ֧اѧ, ܧѧا֧, ҧݧ ӧ٧ѧߧ ڧѧڧ֧ ֧ߧ֧ݧ. ӧݧѧ֧ ֧է֧اѧڧ ߧ֧ ڧڧ ڧݧڧӧѧ ԧݧ ֧ߧ. ӧ֧, ܧѧܧ-ݧڧҧ ѧӧܧѧ, ݧڧ 50 ҧݧ֧ էڧ֧ ߧҧ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧ ݧѧ֧ѧ,ڧ٧ާ֧ߧڧ ӧ ݧڧڧܧ. ܧѧѧ֧ , էڧ ڧ ֧ ݧѧ֧, ܧԧէ էڧ ֧ߧ է֧ۧӧڧ֧ݧߧ ާԧݧ էҧڧ ѧӧڧݧߧԧ ֧֧ߧڧ.

ާԧ ܧѧ٧ѧ, ֧֧ , ҧ ާ֧ߧ ާڧ ݧ֧ާ ֧էӧ ֧ڧڧ. ѧѧ է֧ݧѧ , ާ֧ߧ ݧ ݧѧ֧, ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ߧѧܧ. ѧ ӧէ֧ӧڧ ާݧէ ݧէ֧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ڧݧ֧էӧѧߧڧާ.

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